Despite the great progress made during this century in the developemen and operation of particle accelerators, we are, at the moment, facing severe limitations which impede the attainment of very cold and dense beams of charged particles. These limitations are due to the interparticle Coulomb interactions: intrabeam scatering and space-charge effects.
There has been recent interest in the feasibility of producing so called CRYSTALLINE BEAMS (theory). This is a spatially ordered ensemble of circulating particles having very small velocity fluctuations relative to each other. Such state may be obtainable from an ordinary warm beam through the application of intense and continuous phase-space cooling (e.g. stohastic, electron, laser - cooling).
Crystalline Beams represent the ultimate in the control of space-charge effects. The study and eventual attainment of Crystalline Beams may lead to a variety of other applications (like nuclear fusion reactors) but will certainly provide a deeper insight into the fundamental limitations of particle accelerators. Experimental observation of real Crystalline Beam is yet to be acheived, however extended effort toward it is ongoing in several laboratories.
Most up-to-date knowledge about Crystalline Beams can be found in book: Crystalline Beams and Related Issues, edited by A.G.Ruggiero and D.M.Maletic and published by World Scientific .
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