-- Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, a second generation
instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope. It was launched and
installed into HST in February 1997. C. Joseph is, an instrument
team Co-Investigator and the detector scientist for the
ultraviolet MAMA Detectors.
The Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS)
initially was a Sounding Rocket (launched: 1985 & 1987). IMAPS is a
far-ultraviolet (wavelengths 900-1150 Angstroms) echelle spectrograph
with velocity resolution of 1.2 and 2.4 km/s, higher even than the
spectrographs on HST. Relevant Detector: the EBCCD.
-- Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometers
was a joint NASA/DARA (USA/German) orbital mission which IMAPS flew
piggy back in 1993 and again in 1996. The Columbia shuttle carried
ORFEUS/IMAPS into space, the astronauts deployed the spacecraft, which
became a free-flying satellite for 7 to 10 days before being recaptured
and brought back to earth. Relevant Detector: the EBCCD.
-- National Polarorbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System
is a governmental multi-agency program to monitor the impact of our
sun on the earth's atmosphere. The information is necessary to
protect and react to conditions that may adversely impact
the power grid and telecommunications. Rutgers is supporting
Ball Aerospace with far-ultraviolet detectors.
Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collectors is an envisaged NASA Great
Observatory to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The mission
will consist of two 7-m aperture telescopes looking down at the
earth's atmosphere. When a ultra-high energy CR hits the atmosphere
it creates a near-ultraviolet shower. The OWL telescopes will be
able to measure hundreds of events per year, determining the
direction of origin and energy. The detector challenge is to
develop a near-UV detector that is more than 100x larger than
any previous device and to be able to capture frames very rapidly
over the several millisecond event.
--- Space Ultraviolet/Visible Observatory is an envisaged NASA
Great Observatory to replace the Hubble Space Telescope. SUVO
will have an aperture between 4 m and 8 m, compared to HST's 2.4 m.
The observatory, as its name implies, will cover the visible and
ultraviolet wavelengths. Currently, ultraviolet detectors have
a quantum efficiency (sensitivity) of only 10-20%. To make take
full advantage of SUVO, UV detector with visible-blind quantum
efficiencies of 80% or more will be required. AlGaN solid-state
are the only devices under development that meet this criteria.
-- Hierarchical Assembly through Wide-field Kinematics is a
proposed Long-Duration Balloon Mission. HAWK will have a floation
altitude of 35 km (just under 22 miles) and will carry a 1.8 meter
telescope, providing spatial resolution comparable to the Hubble Space
Telescope, but one that has 100x the efficiency to map the 2-D
velocities. HAWK will empirically determine how galaxies
formed and evolved without relying on models.
--- Kronos (for time keeper) is a proposed Midex Mission for monitoring
long-term variability over a broad range of wavelengths. Projects
include reverberation maps of quasars as material fall into black
holes and stellar flares, among other topics.