PHYSICS 387/388 389
in Modern and Applied Physics
Jan. 4, 2008
The first day of class of 2008 Spring semester will
be on Wednesday Jan. 23. Generl eneral introduction to the course
be given and lab partners and the first experiment will selected.
Experiments will begin in
earnest on Monday, Jan. 28.
To be able to do the X-ray diffraction
experiment, you are required to take a
simple online "training
session." All students who are enrolled in 388/389 must take
this training session and receive radiation badge BEFORE starting the
Course supervisor: Harry Kojima, firstname.lastname@example.org,
(732)445-3875, Serin 120W
Course Assistant: Ross Fadely, email@example.com, (732)445-5881,
Class Hours: MW 3:20-4:40 PM
If you are the last person to
leave the lab, be sure to turn all lights off and lock all doors.
Location: Serin 133W
- Where possible students will work on experiments in pairs, doing
experiments during the semester.
- As in other laboratory courses, it is essential that each
reads the laboratory write up throughly in order to understand the
physics involved before staring any experiment. Do not start an
experiment before reading the total write up and understanding the
entire procedure. Many of the equipment are delicate and
- Each student will write up a lab report
(see below) for each experiment. The lab reports will be graded
on a 0-10 scale. Penalties will be given to late reports.
- Lab reports must be typed. Hand written lab reports will not
accepted. If submitted before due dates, the reports will be
given an initial evaluation and returned to you to make
improvements. Your second submission will be counted towards
- At the end of the semester a histogram of all the points
by each student
will be made, and the grade boundaries (A - B+, B+ - B, etc.) will be
determine each student's grade.
- Kaleidagraph plotting software is available on the newer PC
next to the window facing the corridor.
- If you are interested in doing the X-ray
experiment, take the
simple online "training
session" as soon as possible.
Lab Report Outline:
I. Introduction (purpose, equations; 1 ~ 2 paragraphs)
II. Apparatus (1 paragraph of description)
III. Data (pages from the student's lab notebook)
IV. Analysis and Results (graphs, calculations, answers)
V. Discussion (measurement uncertainties) and Conclusions
The lab reports must be typed on
8 pages or less with double
spacing and 12 pt font or larger. The total report (all text and
figures) must be contained within 8 pages. (If you wish, you may
attach data sheets for your own records.)
Goals of the Experiments
In each of our experiments the experiment writeup provides information
sufficient to perform the experiment, and often goes beyond what is
necessary to write a good lab report. While it is often advantageous
to follow the lab writeup in its entirety, it is not necessary. In
this section you will find a list of the experiments and the goal of
each, which will tell you what your aim should be in doing the
experiment. All fits to data must quote chi squared values
uncertainties in the fitting parameters.
To get the .pdf file for the experimental writeups, click on the links
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT: Here
the aim of the experiment is to make a
graph of the stopping voltage vs. frequency of light. The slope of
this graph is Planck's constant. Fit the graph to a straight line and
quote the values of the fitting parameters and their uncertainties.
pdf file here
Ian and Jeffrey)
ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
The aim of the experiment is to
plot the reflected and refracted light
intensities vs. angle for both polarizations, and to superimpose on
your data the Fresnel equation theoretical form, adjusted to fit the
file here Fresnel
FARADAY EFFECT: The aim of
this experiment is to plot the light
intensity vs. polarizer angle for B=0, and two nonzero B fields. The
correct cosine squared curves should be superimposed on the data, and
the values of the polarization rotation angles determined and checked
that they are linear in B.
Notes: (1)A factor pi is
missing in the numerator of the RHS of Eq. 3. (Mosteiro, Solomovich and
FRANCK-HERTZ EXPERIMENT: The
aim is to plot the peak and valley
voltages vs. n_col. Fit your data to straight lines and quote your
answers including uncertainties.
ZEEMAN EFFECT: Measure the
Zeeman splitting of excitation lines in
mercury for several magnetic field values, and prove that the
splitting is proportional to the magnitude of the B field.
Notes: (1)Restarting of the measurement software may be required,
recalibrating the spectrometer, if PMT is not selected. (Diaz,
Hines and Kim)
spectra lab manual refenced in the Zeeman effect lab manual
above. The operation of the spectrometer is explained in
Appendix 1 on page 29.
Information on how to calibrate Spex
(Douglas, Mathew, Ryan)
FERROMAGNETIC PHASE TRANSITION OF
GADOLINIUM: Plot the heat capacity
as a function of temperature and measure the temperature at which the
phase transition occurs. How well do you know this value?
pdf file here
Notes: (1)Lock-in amplifier:
of SR830, Application
Note (SRS) ..
(2) R.O. Pohl, "Lattice Vibrations of Solids," Am. J. Phys. 55, 245 (1987). Discussion of
specific heat as a research tool. (pdf)
SPEED OF LIGHT: Measure the
speed of light using only the optical
apparatus, oscilloscope, and measuring tape. Quote your
uncertainties. Go on to use the time interval counter to measure c by
the method of phase shifts.
pdf file here
CW NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE:
Measure the NMR frequencies of
hydrogen and fluorine and quote their ratio including uncertainties.
First use only the oscilloscope technique, and then go on to use
the lock-in amplifier.
get pdf file
In taking an NMR spectrum with the lock-in amplifier, it is covenient
to use pc data acquisition techniques. Read the Supplement
NMR on how to use the Labview program
to take data.
several known samples, and one unknown
sample, to determine the spacing of atoms in the crystal structure.
Complete on-line training
(1)You will need to obtain a radiation badge prior to doing this
experiment. It takes several weeks to arrive. So plan
ahead. See write up, page 4.
Then apply for a radiation badge. (You will be automatically
directed after completing the on-line training.) Enter Gabe Alba
as the authoree and where it says "Please list name." The
location of x-ray unit used is "Serin 133
<>GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY:
Measure the spectra of Cesium 137, Cobalt
and Sodium 22, identify the spectroscopic lines and determine their
relative energies. Are these energies in the same ratio as their
"accepted" values predict? What are the uncertainties.
photomultiplier tube/preamplifier. (2) To extract the data file
(channel number and the count) from the data acquisition program, open
Edit menus and choose Copy. Then open your favaorite program
(Excel, notepad, etc.) and Paste. Now the data file so created
can be read by Origin program or other plotting programs. The
data file can also be manipulated to change the channel number to
energy, for example. (3) Skip the gamma-gamma correlation aspect
of the write-up. This is covered in the next laboratory.
GAMMA-GAMMA ANGULAR CORRELATIONS:
Your aim is to plot the
rate as a function of angle. How much of the width of the plot can be
explained by the finite size of the detectors, and what contribution
can the physics of the gamma-gamma emission process make?
PROPER LIFETIME OF THE MUON:
Plot your data of the number of decays
observed vs. time. Fit the data to an exponential form. Is there a
background present? Is it constant in time? If so fit to an
exponential plus a constant. Quote your uncertainties.
LASER: To understand the
fundamentals of laser operation, to gain experience with beam
diagonostic equipment, and to understand Gaussian beam optics as
applied to lasers. Get pdf file from Laser
and see laser 1
2. for addtional information.
procedures for usage of lasers.
Wavelength meter (model WM4200 made
Inc., updated version of WM4100
in the lab).
Manual for Burleigh
spectrum analyzer, Fabry-Perot interferomenter application notes (1)
Introduction and information on laser at Melles Griot (optical
Gaussian beam propagation tutorial at Melles Griot link
Mulligan, "Who were Fabry and Perot?", Am. J. Phys. 66, 797(1998)
RAMAN EFFECT: To measure
Raman spectrum of simple ogranic liquids and to use Raman scattering to
determine the composition of unknown liquid mixture.
to Raman Spectroscopy
Instruments SA H-20 monochrometer specifications
YAG laser made by Continuum manual.
You must read the sections on safety
procedure in this laser manual before starting experiment.
Boxcar Integrater (Stanford
describing the need for a focusing magnetic field and the overall work
that has been done thus far(excluding the X-Y mapper).
on the "initial testing" of the X-Y positioner. (T. Koeth)
on RF system. (T. Koeth)
List of Books Reserved for this course in
to web site for Physics 388/389 Spring 2006