PHYSICS 387/388 389

Experiments in Modern and Applied Physics

SYLLABUS

updates:

Jan. 4, 2008

The first day of class of 2008 Spring semester will be on Wednesday Jan. 23.  Generl eneral introduction to the course will be given and lab partners and the first experiment will selected.  Experiments will begin in earnest on Monday, Jan. 28.

To be able to do the X-ray diffraction experiment, you are required to
take a simple online "training session."  All students who are enrolled in 388/389 must take this training session and receive radiation badge BEFORE starting the experiment.


Contact Information:

Course supervisor: Harry Kojima, kojima@physics.rutgers.edu, (732)445-3875, Serin 120W
Course Assistant: Ross Fadely, fadely@physics.rutgers.edu, (732)445-5881
, Serin 332W


Students with Disabilities


Class Hours: MW 3:20-4:40 PM

If you are the last person to leave the lab, be sure to turn all lights off and lock all doors.


Location: Serin 133W

Group members and schedule of experiments(updated Feb. 13)


Course Policies:

Other Notes:



Lab Report Outline:

I. Introduction (purpose, equations; 1 ~ 2 paragraphs)

II. Apparatus (1 paragraph of description)

III. Data (pages from the student's lab notebook)

IV. Analysis and Results (graphs, calculations, answers)

V. Discussion (measurement uncertainties) and Conclusions

The lab reports must be typed on 8 pages or less with double spacing and 12 pt font or larger.  The total report (all text and figures) must be contained within 8 pages.  (If you wish, you may attach data sheets for your own records.)

     Simple Error Analysis



Goals of the Experiments

In each of our experiments the experiment writeup provides information sufficient to perform the experiment, and often goes beyond what is necessary to write a good lab report. While it is often advantageous to follow the lab writeup in its entirety, it is not necessary. In this section you will find a list of the experiments and the goal of each, which will tell you what your aim should be in doing the experiment.   All fits to data must quote chi squared values and uncertainties in the fitting parameters.

To get the .pdf file for the experimental writeups, click on the links below.

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT: Here the aim of the experiment is to make a graph of the stopping voltage vs. frequency of light. The slope of this graph is Planck's constant. Fit the graph to a straight line and quote the values of the fitting parameters and their uncertainties. get pdf file here

(Sara, Ian and Jeffrey)

ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS: The aim of the experiment is to plot the reflected and refracted light intensities vs. angle for both polarizations, and to superimpose on your data the Fresnel equation theoretical form, adjusted to fit the data. get pdf file here   Fresnel formuli(pdf)
(Jordan , Eric, Leif)

FARADAY EFFECT: The aim of this experiment is to plot the light intensity vs. polarizer angle for B=0, and two nonzero B fields. The correct cosine squared curves should be superimposed on the data, and the values of the polarization rotation angles determined and checked that they are linear in B. get pdf file here
Notes: (1)A factor pi is missing in the numerator of the RHS of Eq. 3. (Mosteiro, Solomovich and Zrake)

(Eric, Daniel, Robert)

FRANCK-HERTZ EXPERIMENT: The aim is to plot the peak and valley voltages vs. n_col. Fit your data to straight lines and quote your answers including uncertainties. get pdf file here
( Snehal, Lawrence, Vijay)

ZEEMAN EFFECT: Measure the Zeeman splitting of excitation lines in mercury for several magnetic field values, and prove that the splitting is proportional to the magnitude of the B field. get pdf file here
Notes: (1)Restarting of the measurement software may be required, after recalibrating the spectrometer, if PMT  is not selected. (Diaz, Hines and Kim)
           (2) Atomic spectra lab manual refenced in the Zeeman effect lab manual above.  The operation of  the spectrometer is explained in Appendix 1 on page 29.
           (3) Information on how to calibrate Spex spectrometer.
(Douglas, Mathew, Ryan)

FERROMAGNETIC PHASE TRANSITION OF GADOLINIUM: Plot the heat capacity as a function of temperature and measure the temperature at which the phase transition occurs. How well do you know this value? get pdf file here
Notes: (1)Lock-in amplifier:  SimulationSpecifications of SR830Application Note (SRS) ..
                 (2) R.O. Pohl, "Lattice Vibrations of Solids,"  Am. J. Phys. 55, 245 (1987).  Discussion of specific heat as a research tool. (pdf)

(Oren, Sean, Eliav)

SPEED OF LIGHT: Measure the speed of light using only the optical apparatus, oscilloscope, and measuring tape. Quote your uncertainties. Go on to use the time interval counter to measure c by the method of phase shifts. get pdf file here

(Garry, David, Henry)

CW NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE: Measure the NMR frequencies of hydrogen and fluorine and quote their ratio including uncertainties. First use only the oscilloscope technique, and then go on to use the lock-in amplifier. get pdf file here
In taking an NMR spectrum with the lock-in amplifier, it is covenient to use pc data acquisition techniques.  Read the Supplement NMR on how to use the Labview program to take data.

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X-RAY DIFFRACTION: Measure several known samples, and one unknown sample, to determine the spacing of atoms in the crystal structure. get pdf file here
Notes: (1)You will need to obtain a radiation badge prior to doing this experiment.  It takes several weeks to arrive.   So plan ahead.  See write up, page 4.

Complete on-line  training and quiz.
Then apply for a radiation badge.  (You will be automatically directed after completing the on-line training.)  Enter Gabe Alba as the authoree and where it says "Please list name."  The location of x-ray unit used is "Serin 133 x-ray unit".

<>GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY: Measure the spectra of Cesium 137, Cobalt 60, and Sodium 22, identify the spectroscopic lines and determine their relative energies. Are these energies in the same ratio as their "accepted" values predict? What are the uncertainties. get pdf file here
Notes: (1)Canberra 2007P photomultiplier tube/preamplifier.  (2) To extract the data file (channel number and the count) from the data acquisition program, open Edit menus and choose Copy.  Then open your favaorite program (Excel, notepad, etc.) and Paste.  Now the data file so created can be read by Origin program or other plotting programs.  The data file can also be manipulated to change the channel number to energy, for example.  (3) Skip the gamma-gamma correlation aspect of the write-up.  This is covered in the next laboratory.

(Brenna, Benjamin, Yifan)

GAMMA-GAMMA ANGULAR CORRELATIONS: Your aim is to plot the coincidence rate as a function of angle. How much of the width of the plot can be explained by the finite size of the detectors, and what contribution can the physics of the gamma-gamma emission process make? get pdf file here

PROPER LIFETIME OF THE MUON: Plot your data of the number of decays observed vs. time. Fit the data to an exponential form. Is there a background present? Is it constant in time? If so fit to an exponential plus a constant. Quote your uncertainties. get pdf file here

LASER: To understand the fundamentals of laser operation, to gain experience with beam diagonostic equipment,  and to understand Gaussian beam optics as applied to lasers.  Get pdf  file from Laser and see  laser 1 and laser 2. for addtional information.
Saftey procedures for usage of lasers.  
Wavelength meter (model WM4200 made by Vere Inc., updated version of WM4100 in the lab).
Instruction Manual for Burleigh spectrum analyzer, Fabry-Perot interferomenter application notes (1) and (2)
Introduction and information on laser at Melles Griot (optical component manufacturer) link
Gaussian beam propagation tutorial at Melles Griot link
J.F. Mulligan, "Who were Fabry and Perot?", Am. J. Phys. 66, 797(1998)

RAMAN EFFECT: To measure Raman spectrum of simple ogranic liquids and to use Raman scattering to determine the composition of unknown liquid mixture.
get pdf file here
Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy
Instruments SA H-20 monochrometer specifications
YAG laser made by Continuum manualYou must read the sections on safety procedure in this laser manual before starting experiment.
Boxcar Integrater (Stanford Research Systems)

CYCLOTRON
See http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/cyclotron for description.
Document describing the need for a focusing magnetic field and the overall work that has been done thus far(excluding the X-Y mapper).
Report on the "initial testing" of the X-Y positioner. (T. Koeth)
Notes on RF system. (T. Koeth)


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List of Books Reserved for this course in Physics Library

Link to web site for Physics 388/389 Spring 2006