Physics 351    Thermal Physics      Spring 2017

General:  “Thermal Physics” is an introduction to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics.  Three model systems, namely, an ideal gas, an Einstein solid, and a two-state paramagnet, will be used as examples to introduce and illustrate various thermodynamic concepts.  The course will begin with the review of some of the familiar concepts related to the conservation of energy (the first law) as applied to thermodynamics.  Quantities such as temperature (T), internal energy (U), work (W) and heat (Q) will be introduced.  Then, the idea of accessible states, multiplicity (Ω) and entropy (S) will be introduced.  The connection between the multiplicity and the second law of thermodynamics will be established.  Precise relation between temperature and entropy will be given by considering interactions between two macroscopic systems.  The first and second laws are then applied to the discussion of engines and refrigerators.  Phase transitions and equilibrium between states of matter will be the next main topic.  Finally, introductions to classical Boltzmann statistics and quantum statistics wrap up the course.

The tentative outline given above will follow in order of the topics given in the textbook except 1.7, 5.5, 5.6, Sommerfeld expansion in 7.3, 7.5 and chapter 8.  Class periods will be used for lectures, discussions and example problems.  An approximate schedule is shown below.  Read the relevant contents before coming to class.  Lecture notes will be posted after each class. Homework assignments will be announced on the course home page.  It will be your responsibility to check the home page regularly.  The assignments will be collected and graded.  There will be two mid-term exams and the final exam.

Grades are available on Gradebook
.You need your Rutgers NetID and password to login. To accommodate the possibility that you have a legitimate reason to have missed an assignment, your lowest homework score will be dropped, i.e. only 10 highest homework scores will be counted toward your final grade. Therefore, there is NO makeup for homework assignments.

There are also slides originally written up by Prof. Gershenson, which are available on this page . They serve as a good complement to the text and lectures.

Warm-up: Problems on the Ideal Gas Law (solution)
Binomial distribution.

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Lecture Date
Topic
Ch.
HW
HW Solution

1 (pdf, ppt)

1/18 W

Introduction, Temperature, Ideal Gas

1.1-1.3



2 (pdf)

1/20 F

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics

1.4-1.6



3 (pdf)

1/25 W

Combinatorics, Probability and Multiplicity of 2-state paramagnet 

2.1-2.4

HW1

HW1

4 (pdf)

1/27 F

Einstein solids, Entropy and temperature

2.2, 2.6, 3.1



5 (pdf)

2/1 W

The 2nd and 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics

2.3, 2.6, 3.2

HW2

HW2

6 (pdf) 2/3 F Multiplicity and Entropy of monatomic Ideal Gas
2.5,3.5


7 (pdf)

2/8 W

Thermodynamic Identities

3.4-3.6

HW3

HW3

8 (pdf)

2/10 F

Systems with a “Limited” Energy Spectrum

3.3




2/15 W

Review Ch. 1-3 (practice exam 1, solution

1-3

HW4

HW4


2/17 F

Midterm I



Midterm I

10 (pdf)

2/22 W

Ideal Heat Engine and Refrigerators (Carnot cycle)

4.1,4.2



11 (pdf)

2/24 F

Real Heat Engines and Refrigerators

4.3



12 (pdf)

3/1 W

Refrigerators and towards Absolute Zero

4.4

HW5

HW5

13 (pdf)

3/3 F

Free Energy as a Force toward Equilibrium and as available Work

5.1,5.2



14 (pdf)

3/8 W

Phase transformation of pure substance and  van der Waals Gas

5.3

HW6

HW6

15 (pdf)

3/10 F

Phase transformation of binary mixtures

5.4



Spring Break


3/22 W

Cancelled

 



16

3/24 F

Review Ch. 4-5 (practice exam 2, solution)

4-5

HW7

HW7


3/29 W

Midterm II



Midterm II

17 (pdf)

3/31 F

Boltzmann Statistics and Canonical Ensembles

6.1, 6.2


18 (pdf)

4/5 W

Continuous Spectrum, Density of States, and  Equipartition

6.3-6.7



19 (pdf)

4/7 F

Grand canonical ensemble, Statistics of quantum ideal gas,

7.1, 7.2

HW8

HW8

20 (pdf)

4/12 W

Fermion and boson gas

7.2



21 (pdf)

4/14 F

Degenerate Fermi Gas

7.3

HW9

HW9

22 (pdf)

4/19 W

Bose-Einstein Condensation

7.6



23 (pdf)

4/21 F

Blackbody Radiation

7.4

HW10

HW10

24

4/26 W

Overview, Practice problems

6,7



25

4/28 F

Practice problems

1-7 HW11

HW11


05/09

Final, 4-7 PM



Final