Physics 342
Principles of Astrophysics
Spring 2015

Tuesdays and Thursdays
3:20 to 4:40pm
ARC 105, Busch campus
Instructor: Alyson Brooks

Description

Astrophysics is the application of physical principles to astronomical systems. In Physics 341 and 342 you will learn how to use gravity, electromagnetism, and atomic, nuclear, and gas physics to understand planets, stars, galaxies, dark matter, and the Universe as a whole. In Physics 342 we will focus on the question: How did we get here?

Our story will include the nucleosynthesis of hydrogen and helium in the first few minutes after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, the formation of stars from this primordial gas, and the forging of heavier elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, among all others within these stars' nuclear furnaces. Around at least one star in the Universe some of these heavy elements coagulated to form a rocky planet with a tenuous atmosphere. On this planet Earth, the energy from the star and the gas in the atmosphere were just right to allow the emergence of life. The energy that sustains us originated deep in the Sun, thanks to E=mc2 . The atoms that comprise our bodies were made inside dying stars. Literally, we are star dust. The goal of Physics 342 is to understand the physics of this remarkable story.

Some astrophysical systems are described by equations that are fairly easy to solve, and we will certainly study them. However, many interesting systems cannot be solved exactly. Nevertheless, we can often use physical insight and approximate calculations to understand the salient features of a system without sweating the details. One goal of the course is to develop that skill. As you will see, it will take us very far (through the whole Universe, in fact!) Another goal is to learn about recent advances in astrophysics, a very dynamic field of research.

Prerequisites for this class are two semesters of physics and two semesters of calculus. I will briefly review physical principles as we need them, but assume that you have seen them before. I will also assume familiarity with vector calculus. Some of the assignments may involve a bit of computation that can be done with programs like Excel, Google Spreadsheets, Maple, Matlab, or Mathematica. Note that Physics 341 is not a prerequisite for Physics 342; the two courses are designed to be complementary, but independent.

Lectures will be based on the course textbook, Principles of Astrophysics: Using Gravity and Stellar Physics to Explore the Cosmos, by Prof. Chuck Keeton. (It was written specifically for this course.)

Contact Information

Prof. Alyson Brooks
Room 306, Serin Physics Building (across Allison Road from the classroom), Busch campus
Email: abrooks[at]physics.rutgers.edu
Phone: 848-445-8877

Office hours: Wed 2-3, or immediately after class (or by appointment if neither of those works)

Grading Policy

Grading will be based on biweekly problem sets (50%), an in-class conceptual midterm (5%), iClicker conceptual question scores (20%), and the final exam (25%).

Problem sets will be posted to Sakai. There will be 6 problem sets during the semester, due every other Thursday at the beginning of class. Problem sets can also be turned in as PDF files via Sakai.

Always show your work. You will not receive full credit if you do not show your work. I will never look for a specific answer. Rather, I am always looking for the reasoning behind the answer.

You are encouraged to work in groups on the problem sets, but your write-up of the solutions must be your own. You must write down the names of your collaborators on your write-up. You must also cite any external sources you use (other than the textbook). You may not use notes, assignments, or solutions from previous years of Physics 341 or 342.

In general, late homework will automatically receive a maximum of half points. Seek arrangement with me at least 24 hours in advance if you think you have a legitimate excuse for late work. After I have graded and handed back homework, I will not accept that homework anymore.

Schedule: Topics and Assignments

This syllabus may be modified as the semester progresses.

Date
General concept
Topics
Text
Assignment
Jan 20,22
Introduction
dimensional analysis; electron gas
Chapter 1
Jan 27
The air we breathe
kinetic theory of gases
Ch. 12.1
Jan 29
planetary atmospheres;
hydrostatic equilibrium
Ch. 12.2/12.3
Feb 3
more planetary atmospheres
 
Feb 5
Hot in here
blackbody radiation; planet temperatures
Ch. 13.1/13.2
PS #1 due Feb 5
Feb 10,12
atmospheric heating; greenhouse effect
Ch. 13.3/13.4
Feb 17,19
Star light, star bright
stellar atmospheres; HR diagram
Ch. 14.1/14.2
PS #2 due Feb 19
Feb 24
energy transport
Ch. 16.1
Feb 26
nuclear fusion: energetics
Ch. 15
Mar 3
nuclear fusion: reaction rates
 
Mar 5
nuclear reactions in stars
 
PS #3 due Mar 5
Mar 10
stellar structure; standard solar model
Ch. 16.2
Mar 12
in-class conceptual quiz; solar neutrinos
 
in-class quiz
Mar 17, 19
NO CLASS; SPRING BREAK
Mar 24
We are star dust
stellar evolution: low-mass stars
Ch. 16.3
Mar 26
stellar evolution: high-mass stars
Ch. 16.4
PS #4 due Mar 26
Mar 31, Apr 2
white dwarfs; neutron stars
Ch. 17
Apr 7
Surveying the Universe
stellar pulsations
Ch. 18
Apr 9
supernovae; cosmic acceleration;
dark energy
 
PS #5 due Apr 9
Apr 14, 16
Origins
star and galaxy formation
Ch. 19.1
Apr 21
cooling
Ch. 19.2/19.3
Apr 23
stars, disks, and planets
Ch. 19.4
PS #6 due Apr 23
Apr 28
cosmic microwave background
Ch. 20.1
Apr 30
Big Bang nucleosynthesis
Ch. 20.2
May 8
Final Exam, Location: TBD
Time: 12-3pm

Resources

Here are some web resources you may find illuminating or indispensable:

Other Items

Students with disabilities should consult the department policy.

Students will be held to the Rutgers policy on academic integrity.

Astrophysics at RutgersDepartment of Physics and AstronomyRutgers University

Last updated: January 9, 2014 by Alyson Brooks