Physics 443/543 and Astro 443 -- Spring 2019

Galaxies and the Milky Way

Professor: Alyson Brooks


hubble ultra deep fieldgalaxy imagecoma
Hubble Ultra Deep Field; Hubble Heritage image M66; Coma cluster

1. Overview and Course Description

Galaxies are an important nexus in the cosmic hierarchy: they serve as lighthouses marking out the vast cosmic structures that can span many millions of parsecs, but are fascinating in themselves as laboratories for the "small scale" processes of stellar birth and evolution. We now have images of billions of galaxies, and can observe them from a time less than a billion years after the Big Bang until the present day. We can study not only the appearance or "morphology" of galaxies, but also in some cases measure properties of their stellar populations, their quota of heavy elements, their gas content, and the internal motions (or kinematics) of their stars and gas. Although galaxies exhibit amazing diversity, they also conform to certain surprisingly tight correlations. From kinematic measurements, we can infer that galaxies contain a major unseen component that influences the motions of their stars and gas: the mysterious "dark matter". Moreover, the stars and gas that we can measure within galaxies falls far short of what we would expect for the cosmic "baryon budget". The study of modern galaxy formation focuses on trying to understand the observed demographics and correlations of galaxy properties and how these evolve over cosmic time, in the context of the "hierarchical structure formation" picture provided by the Cold Dark Matter theory.

In this course, we will warm up with a brief review of stars and radiative processes and basic cosmology. We will start our study of galaxies with our home Galaxy, the Milky Way, our sister galaxy M31 (Andromeda), and our smaller companions the Local Group dwarfs. Even this relatively small population of galaxies in our own "backyard" poses a number of unsolved puzzles. We will then cover the properties of spiral, lenticular, and elliptical galaxies in the 'nearby' Universe, and discuss the larger structures that form galaxy habitats: groups and clusters. One fascinating open question is whether galaxy properties are mainly shaped by "internal" processes or by their environment. We will discuss the evidence that many or even most galaxies harbor supermassive black holes in their nuclei. We will wind up the course with a discussion of how we can find and observe extremely distant (high redshift) galaxies, and of how galaxies were different in the past.

2. Instructor and Venue

Prof. Alyson Brooks
email: abrooks [at] physics.rutgers.edu
office: 306 Serin
office hours Wed 2-4 (and by appointment)

The course is scheduled for M/Th, 12:00 to 1:20 in SERC 203

4. Textbook

The main text for the course is Galaxies in the Universe (Second Edition), by L.S. Sparke and J.S. Gallagher.

Several other textbooks that may be useful for supplemental reading are: 

Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, Second Edition, by Peter Schneider
Galaxy Formation and Evolution by Mo, van den Bosch & White: a recent and comprehensive graduate level textbook.
Introduction to Cosmology by Ryden: very useful and clear text if you need to brush up on your cosmology
An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics by Caroll & Ostlie: useful basic reference

3. Class Format and Grading

The course will be run as a lecture/discussion, and in order for this to work well, it is imperative that students complete the assigned reading before class. Grades will be based on approximately 5 homework assignments (30%), 5 in-class quizzes (30%), and a final paper (15%) including peer review (10%) and presentation (15%).

Problem sets will be posted to Sakai. There will be 5 problem sets during the semester, due roughly every other Thursday at the beginning of class. Problem sets can also be turned in via Sakai (preferably as pdf).

In lieu of a final exam, a final paper will be written (and due at the end of the formal exam time).

Week
General concept
Topics
Text
Assignment
Jan 24
Introduction
overview
 
Jan 28,31
Photons
Stellar Populations;
IMF
S&G 1.1/1.2
 
Feb 4,7
 
Radiative Processes;
dust
S&G 1.2
PS #1 due
Feb 11,14
Census
morphology, structure;
surveys & populations;
S&G 5.1
Quiz 1
Feb 18,21
 
large scale structure;
expanding Universe
S&G 8.1/1.4/8.2
PS #2 due
Feb 25,28
Formation
structure formation
S&G 1.5/8.4.1/8.5
Quiz 2
Mar 4,7
 
galaxy formation
 
project proposals due Mon
Mar 11,14
Local Group
hierarchical formation
 
PS #3 due Mon
Mar 18, 21
NO CLASS; SPRING BREAK
Mar 25, 28
chemical evolution;
the Local Group as a Laboratory
S&G 4.1/4.2/4.3/4.4
Quiz 3
Apr 1, 4
Disk Galaxies
kinematics; spirals arms
S&G 5.4/5.5
PS#4 due
Apr 8,11
 
bars; scaling relations
S&G 5.2/5.3
paper drafts due;
presentations begin
Apr 15,18
Elliptical Galaxies
kinematics;
scaling relations
S&G 6.1/6.2/6.3/6.4
Quiz 4
Apr 22,25
Also
AGN; clusters of galaxies
S&G 9.1/7.1/7.2
reviews due Mon;
PS #5 due Thurs
Apr 29, May 2
High z
finding distant galaxies;
student presentations
S&G 8.3/9.3/9.4
Quiz 5
May 6
student presentations
 
 
May 9
student presentations
final papers due
 
9:30-11;
11 am

Resources

Here are some web resources you may find illuminating or indispensable:

SAS/Physics Course Policies

A list of resources and policies.