INTRODUCTION: The Rutgers 12-Inch cyclotron is an accelerator capable of producing 1 million electron volt (1 MeV) protons, it is both a teaching tool and a research and development platform. While it is now employed as a teaching tool in the Modern Physics Lab courses at Rutgers University, the 12-inch cyclotron project began as a personal pursuit for two Rutgers undergraduate students in 1995 (Tim Koeth & Stu Hanebuth). By 1999 the cyclotron construction was the focus of the four senior cyclotron staff. The cyclotron was moved into the Physics Building in 2001 and incorporated into the Modern Physics Teaching Lab. Since the Fall semester of 2001 student projects have been contributing to the cyclotron's operation and improvement. By spring of 2006 the cyclotron was reliably producing a 200 nanoamperes 800keV proton beam. Now, in 2012, with the recent addition of the PIG ion source the cyclotron routinely out-runs its operators! The cyclotron operates smoothly, providing 10's of microamperes of beam on-time in excess of 30 hours without requiring maintenance. The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron project has given its students a working introduction to the field of accelerator physics. The principles of operation of today's large accelerators are very similar. With this machine, the students can encounter many of the same features, frustrations, and breakthroughs an accelerator physicist might at Fermilab or CERN. We have done our best to make this experience available to the world through this web page, please e-mail us (koeth at physics.rutgers.edu) with questions.

IMPACT: To date, nineteen junior- and senior-level undergraduate physics students have gained experience with this machine; five of them have gone on to pursue accelerator physics careers in both academia and industry. Our cyclotron has been featured in Physics Today (November 2004), Make Magazine (2005), Fermilab-SLAC-CERN's symmetry (August 2010), as well as numerous online articles. Beam physics data from our cyclotron has been incorperated into the United States Particle Accelerator School's (USPAS) curriculum. Collaborations with other laboratories from around the globe have been formed so as to use the Rutgers Cyclotron for the developement cyclotron central regions and associated components.

For more information, please click here for our video tour.

The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

(Spring, 2013)

Movie of cyclotron beam within 1 RF Cycle (each frame is 9 degrees)

(March, 2013)

Full radial view of axial betatron motion.

(December, 2012)

Jan 2012: We've updated our site with some recent work

The Cyclotron Library is Complete !

(March, 2012)

Thank you to all of those that helped bring this 15+ year quest to an end. Our Cyclotron Library now has a complete hardbound collection of proceedings from all of the cyclotron conference held to-date. To our knowledge this is the only complete set (there are probably others, but only a few at best). Contributions to this collection have come from all over: literally as nearby as the office next door to mine and as far away as Europe and Asia, and everywhere in between. There is a funny story associated with getting each one! This collection best documents the evolution into the cyclotron technology that we have today. It is inspiring to see how far the 'founders' of AVF got by struggling with hand calculations in the early days (1959) and how now such design has simply become nonchalant computer simulation runs. Yet, with even with sophisticated computer tools, it is still clear that successful cyclotron design remains an artform. Please feel free to contact us if you need a copy of an article or two. Only about five of these volumes have been digitized, they are available online at www.jacow.org under 'cyclotrons.'

Beam on Target !

(July, 2011)

The beam was intense ! So intense that the phosphor target glowed bright enough to illuminate Tim's face through a view port.

April 2009: Electrostatic Deflector Operational

Take a look at the electrostatic deflector page to learn more.

December 2007:First half of ion revolution visually seen !

A very interesting observation was made during the operation of the cyclotron last December. With the presure high enough, recombination allowed us to see the early ion beam path of it's steep downward spiral (and loss). For detailed information, please read the Ion Source Studies - Part II: Simulations and measurements which talks about the latest ion source. The new ion source is also documented on the Ion Source - Part II (AKA Recent Ion Source) web page.

March 2007: A Betatron Motion Experiment


The sinusoidal traces are from the ion beam hitting a viewing screen.

We replaced the typical ion source chimney with a 3-holed chimney, essentially giving us three separate ion sources. The resultant image on the flourescent screen is that of several betatron patterns horizontally stacked. Analysis of the observed betatron motion will yield information about the ions trajectory in the first few revolutions. Stay tuned !

New Jan 2007: A fun article by Fermilab's Danielle Venton "The Many Live's of Fermi's [Cyclotron] Magnet" in which Tim Koeth appears relaxing between the poles. This dwarfs our little 12-inch magnet.

April 2006: Betatron Motion observed



The sinusoidal trace is the accelerated ion beam hitting the flourescent screen inside the accelerator. A 15 second photographic exposure was taken while the flourescent screen was slid in and out, the result is the sinusoidal pattern seen. It shows how the beam moves up and down during it's spiralled acceleration path outward.

For detailed information, please read the technical write up about the osbserved betatron motion and analysis.

Make Magazine featured our Cyclotron in their second issue in the Spring of 2005.

Check out our Cyclotron's profile in Physics Today (Nov '04)

The Rutgers Focus wrote a nice article about our Cyclotron in April of 2004.

We were Slashdotted on October 20, 2002 !

Below is a plot of the load on this server as a result of the Slashdot posting. The blue trace is the incomming request traffic and the green trace is outgoing traffic load from this web site.

Please note that the Slashdot arcticle was posted at 18:35 and the instantaneous response is clearly noted.

In the first 24 hours there were approximately 31,000 unique visitors to this page, and during the same period of time the approximate number of file requests (pics and docs) exceded 800,000 !

If you have any questions or comments, please e-mail Tim Koeth at koeth@physics.rutgers.edu

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